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The Connections of Pregnancy-, Delivery-, and Infant-Related Risk Factors and Negative Life Events on Postpartum Depression and Their Role in First and Recurrent Depression
Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka (2016)
Depression research and treatment 2016
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Introduction. The aim of this study is to assess how negative life events and adverse experiences with pregnancy, delivery, the infant(s), and breastfeeding cessation impact on postpartum depression (PPD), specifically in first lifetime and recurrent depression. Method. The study group comprised 104 mothers with a current episode of PPD and a control group of 104 mothers who did not have current PPD. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The course of the depression, adverse experiences, and breastfeeding were assessed by self-reports. Results. In age-adjusted multivariate analyses, mental and physical problems during pregnancy or delivery, postpartum problems with the infant and breastfeeding cessation, and negative life events during the previous 12 months were associated with postpartum depression. Eighteen percent (18%) of the mothers had first depression and 82% recurrent depression. Mental and physical problems during pregnancy or delivery were associated with both first lifetime and recurrent depression. Nevertheless, negative life events and infant/breastfeeding issues associated only with recurrent depression. Conclusion. Factors associated with pregnancy and delivery have an impact on PPD, but in recurrent depression other postnatal and psychosocial factors are also important risk factors.
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