The Degree of Leukocytosis and Urine GATA-3 mRNA Levels Are Risk Factors for Severe Acute Kidney Injury in Puumala Virus Nephropathia Epidemica
Libraty, Daniel H; Mäkelä, Satu; Vlk, Jennifer; Hurme, Mikko; Vaheri, Antti; Ennis, Francis A; Mustonen, Jukka (2012)
Libraty, Daniel H
Ennis, Francis A
Plos One 7 4
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Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection, also known as nephropathia epidemica, is the most common cause of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe. The pathogenesis of PUUV nephropathia epidemica is complex and multifactorial, and the risk factors for severe acute kidney injury (AKI) during acute PUUV infection are not well defined. We conducted a prospective study of hospitalized patients with PUUV infection in Tampere, Finland to identify acute illness risk factors for HFRS severity. Serial daily blood and urine samples were collected throughout acute illness and at 2 week and 6 month convalescent visits. By univariate analyses, the maximum white blood cell count during acute illness was a risk factor for severe AKI. There were no significant associations between PUUV-induced AKI severity and platelet counts, C-reactive protein, or alanine aminotransferase levels. Maximum plasma interleukin (IL)-6, urine IL-6, and urine IL-8 concentrations were positively associated with PUUV-induced AKI. Finally, the maximum urinary sediment GATA-3 mRNA level was positively correlated with the peak fold-change in serum creatinine, regardless of AKI severity classification. By multivariate analyses, we found that the maximum levels of leukocytes and urinary sediment GATA-3 mRNA during acute illness were independent risk factors for severe PUUV-induced AKI. We have identified novel acute illness risk factors for severe PUUV-induced AKI.
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