'Nuori mies, lähde länteen' Talous ja muuttoliike Euroopan transitiossa

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dc.contributor.author Rantala, Heikki -
dc.date.accessioned 2012-12-03T12:10:28Z
dc.date.available 2012-12-03T12:10:28Z
dc.date.issued 2002 -
dc.identifier.isbn 951-44-5534-7 -
dc.identifier.uri http://tampub.uta.fi/handle/10024/67256
dc.description.abstract Miten Euroopan unionin itälaajeneminen vaikuttaa itä-länsi -muuttoliikkeisiin? Millaisia ovat eurooppalaisen taloudellisen kehityksen ja muuttoliikkeen väliset yhteydet? Onko epävirallisella taloudella vaikutusta ihmisten muuttopäätöksiin? Ovatko maahanmuuttajat ratkaisu työvoimapulaan? Tutkimuksessa on kyselyaineiston avulla analysoitu työllisen työvoiman maastamuuttohalukkuutta neljällä kaupunkiseudulla: Pietarissa, Tallinnassa, Prahassa ja Bratislavassa. Pietarin ja Venäjän tulevaa kehitystä on erittäin vaikea ennakoida. Tallinna, Praha ja Bratislava ovat EU-hakijamaiden pääkaupunkeja, joiden taloudessa ja maantieteellisessä asemassa on merkittäviä eroja. Tutkimus on keskittynyt muuttopäätösten taustalla vaikuttaviin motiiveihin. Ensinnäkin maastamuuttohalukkuutta on tarkasteltu osana työmarkkinoita. Toinen näkökulma painottaa epävirallisen talouden toimintaa, esimerkiksi omavaraistaloutta sekä läheisten ihmisten muodostamia verkostoja ja kontakteja muuttoliikkeen mahdollistajana. Tutkimustulosten mukaan tulevaisuuden muuttovirrat suuntautuvat enimmäkseen perinteisille muuton kohdealueille. Saksa on suosittu kohdemaa. Tallinnalaiset asuisivat mieluiten Saksassa tai Ruotsissa, pietarilaiset Saksassa tai Ranskassa. Työmarkkinoihin liittyvää kansainvälistä muuttoliikettä ohjaa työmarkkinoiden kysyntä ja tarjonta. Työelämän kasvavat osaamisvaatimukset koskevat myös maasta toiseen siirtyviä muuttajia. Organisaatioiden kansainvälistyminen tarjoaa koulutetuille, ammatti- ja kielitaitoisille henkilöille paremmat mahdollisuudet työskentelyyn kansainvälistyvillä työmarkkinoilla kuin vähemmän koulutetulle väestölle. Taloudelliset tekijät ohjaavat työvoiman liikkuvuutta, mikä vaikuttaa eri tavoin korkeasti ja matalasti koulutettuun väestöön. Jälkimmäisestä on esimerkki kausiluonteinen maataloustyövoiman liikkuvuus, joka tapahtuu laillisesti tai laittomasti. Poliittiset tekijät, kuten suhtautuminen turvapaikanhakijoihin, vaikuttavat pakolaisvirtoihin. Kysymys on toisistaan eriytyneistä muuttajaryhmistä. Muuttoliikkeen ja epävirallisen talouden yhteys muodostuu yksilöiden yleisen taloudellisen aktiivisuuden kautta. Taloudellisesti aktiiviset ja eteenpäin pyrkivät yksilöt käyttävät hyväkseen monia epävirallisen talouden muotoja. Heillä on useita työpaikkoja ja palkkatyön lisäksi omaa bisnestä. Toimeentulomahdollisuuksien etsimiseen liittyy myös halukkuus etsiä toimeentulon mahdollisuuksia ulkomailta. Toisaalta epävirallinen talous myös kiinnittää ihmisiä nykyiseen asuinpaikkaan: omavaraistalous sitoo ihmisiä asuinseutuunsa. Mikäli Euroopan poliittinen ja taloudellinen kehitys jatkuu vakaana, merkittäviä muutoksia työmarkkinoiden ohjaamaan muuttoliikkeeseen ei tule tapahtumaan. Tulevaisuuden muuttovirrat tulevat Euroopassa edelleenkin suuntautumaan idästä länteen. Työelämän osaamisvaatimukset ovat suuri haaste maahanmuuttajille sekä heitä vastaanottaville maille. fi
dc.description.abstract "Go west, young man, go west" Economy and Human Migration in the European Transition This study examines the economic transition in the post-socialist countries of Europe and its impact on migration intentions in the mid-1990s. The working populations of four urban regions (St. Petersburg, Russia; Tallinn, Estonia; Prague, The Czech Republic; and Bratislava, Slovakia) are the research objects. Since the late 1980s the political and ideological obstacles of the Cold War era have become largely meaningless. The new complex institutional West-East processes are integrating European transition countries into the Western economic world. The approach of the present study begins from the macro level of European integration and continues to the micro level where the integration processes of employee organisations and employers are analysed. The focus of the study is on the formal and informal economies and their impact on migration willingness. The processes of these phenomena can be classified into three spheres, the specific research questions are: 1) What are the roles of the "old socialist" central planned economy and the socialist secondary economy in the development of market economy institutions? 2) How significant are the formal and informal economies for the working population as sources of income. 3) How do the formal and informal economies impact on migration willingness? Development of the market economy institutions Due to the breakdown of the European planned economies Western European economic culture has diffused to the European transition countries. Currently "new European" and "old socialist" economic institutions coexist in parallel. These economic institutions have integrated in such a way as to create a mixture of the "old" and "new". The socialist heritage of organising economic activities and the "new" capitalist or market-based economy with its institutional order should not be seen as mutually exclusive alternatives. The legacy of the socialist past persists today and coexists with the "new" institutions. Although many formal and informal institutions of the former socialist era still exist in the post-Socialist countries, due to the collapse of European planned economies the western economic world and economic cultures have expanded to the current transition countries. At the European and state levels this political and economic process has shown an eastward enlargement of Western enterprises and other economic organisations. Due to these changes in the (regional and international) economic environment institutions, market economies and different economic cultures have become a driving force in the developments of the European transition countries. A long era of planned economy created wide and long-lasting economic subcultures which tend to continue their existence even though they have lost their relevance. What is more, the historical backgrounds are far more complex and they do not end in the Socialist era. For example in Estonia, the legislation of the 1930s was used as a constitutional basis when the Soviet Republic fought its way towards restored independence. This example presents a feature typical for all transition economies: the institutional lag in the transition. This institutional lag can still be seen as leaning on the socialist institutions on one hand and restoring the old institutions from the pre-socialist era on the other. Although the present macro level roots and causes of informal economy in transition countries are different from those in the socialist era, some influences of the socialist informal economy still persist in every-day life. Formal and informal economies as income sources Preconditions for the integration of various enterprises and employee organisations in the expanding economic market economy institutions are emphasised. New practices for economic activities are emerging in the various sectors of economy. Simultaneously the informal sector retains an important role in the economy. The transition process has caused social polarisation or fragmentation within the post-socialist countries. New technologies set higher requirements for skilled workforce. As the new private sector and particularly transnational corporations have established themselves in the post-socialist countries, the workforce has faced not only new jobs and career prospects but also new trends of labour market fragmentation typical for old market economy countries. However, especially in the case of St. Petersburg, fragmentation in the labour market is mostly caused by the general problems in the economic transition. One of the characteristics of transition economies is the significance of the informal economy, which is emphasised during a crisis in the formal economy. Economic activity integrates individuals into institutions representing different economic cultures. Access to the internal labour markets and upward career in the employee organisations in the formal sector of the economy and economic activity in informal social networks serve as examples of this human integration. Individuals and households in European transition countries are benefiting of a great variety of different income sources. Despite all the changes on the macro and individual levels the heritage of the informal or secondary economy of the socialist era is still a part of everyday life. Thus, instead of looking at a limited number of indicators illustrating the (macro) economic developments in the transition countries, more attention should be paid to their internal dynamics regarding social processes. Moreover, the income level in the urban regions studied is relatively low when compared to the Western neighbouring countries. Taking advantage of various informal income sources is a must for many households to meet their everyday needs. Migration willingness At the individual level the relations between employers and employees in different organisations are of considerable importance. Enterprises and other organisations are furthermore being interpreted as arenas for human activity which shape individual experiences and expectations. Individuals participate in different economic cultures. Willingness to emigrate is affected by the experiences and expectations of working population. Since the late 1980s international migration has emerged as an issue of considerable political, social and economic importance. In Europe, migration pressures have resulted from the ongoing processes of European integration and from the upheavals in the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe. In the latter group of countries living conditions have changed dramatically. As the status and position of different demographic groups change, feelings of inequality and discontent easily begin to ferment. According the survey data of the study most of the potential emigrants indicate willingness to migrate to the traditional destination countries. Thus the future migration flows will very likely resemble the historical migration flows. However, due to the now foreseeable European Union it can be assumed that at the state (macro) level income and GDP differentials between the East and West of Europe will gradually converge. Simultaneously, at the regional or micro level, population groups of different regions are being polarised by their ability to take advantage of the expected macro level economic growth. This argument can be justified by the fact that during the transition process social polarisation has taken place in virtually all the post-socialist countries. In long term this polarisation or fragmentation will affect labour market developments on the level of the entire European Union, as migration is one of the market-driven mechanisms through which the supply of and demand for labour force seek equilibrium. New technologies have revolutionised both processes and products, thus also changing the demand for immigrant labour force. In other words fragmentation in the labour market will result in fragmentation in the migratory flows. At the regional level particular growth poles or centres are the most able to take advantage of the technological development and both the domestic and immigrant skilled labour force. On the other hand, the demand for skilled labour force may be an obstacle to development if the supply and demand do not meet. As seen in the industrialised Western countries, mismatches in the labour market easily lead to severe structural problems of the labour market despite prolonged economic growth: continuous shortage of labour force in some sectors of the economy and high rates of unemployment in others. From the regional point of view the problems of the agrarian periphery are the most acute. It is doubtful if the effects of economic growth will automatically spread from the cities to the more rural regions. In the European context the process of integration of the West European economies and the breakthrough of the global economy have intensified competitive pressures in the labour markets. In these processes the changing technical environment is a central element. Thus, the post-socialist economies are facing simultaneous pressures: the challenges caused by the domestic transition processes, European integration, and globalisation. en
dc.language.iso fi -
dc.publisher Tampere University Press -
dc.relation.isformatof 951-44-5533-9 -
dc.subject transitio -
dc.subject talous -
dc.subject epävirallinen talous -
dc.subject muuttoliike -
dc.subject transition -
dc.subject economy -
dc.subject informal economy -
dc.subject human migration -
dc.title 'Nuori mies, lähde länteen' Talous ja muuttoliike Euroopan transitiossa -
dc.type.ontasot fi=Väitöskirja | en=Doctoral dissertation| -
dc.identifier.urn urn:isbn:951-44-5534-7 -
dc.relation.numberinseries 903 -
dc.seriesname Acta Universitatis Tamperensis -
dc.oldstats 1856 -
dc.seriesname.electronic Acta Electronica Universitatis Tamperensis -
dc.relation.numberinserieselectronic 223 -
dc.publisher.electronic Tampere University Press -
dc.subject.study Aluetiede - Regional Studies -
dc.date.dissertation 2002-12-05 -
dc.onsale 1 -
dc.faculty fi=Taloudellis-hallinnollinen tiedekunta | en=Faculty of Economics and Administration| -
dc.department fi=Aluetieteen ja ympäristöpolitiikan laitos | en=Department of Regional Studies and Environmental Policy| -

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